The answer is a definitive no.
Voting in a federal election does not impact your residency status or your tax liability status. Not only that, but the IRS does not routinely use voter registration records in order to locate people who reside abroad.
Voting in local or municipal elections may affect your residency status, depending on local laws, which could in turn affect your tax liability status. You should check with an official in your region to be sure. However, to reiterate, your status will NOT be affected if you vote in federal elections, such as the upcoming 2012 Presidential Elections, and registering to vote will not cause the IRS to contact you.
You can view the laws surrounding this issue in PDF form here.
“The exercise of any right under this subchapter shall not affect, for purposes of any Federal, State, or local tax, the residence or domicile of a person exercising such right”
On that note, consider taking 2 or 3 minutes of your time and register to vote from the comfort of your home in Israel at iVoteIsrael.com. Our site makes it simple, and we have staff who are ready and willing to assist you, should you have any questions or concerns!